The Journey: Manufacturing


Quality Wool Results In A Quality Product

Wool supplied through the Integrity Programme is guaranteed to be of consistently high quality resulting in more efficient processing and manufacturing. Wool is a multifunctional fibre with many uses and applications.


During the carding process, the fibres pass through metal teeth that straighten and blend the lengths into slivers. Carding also removes residual dirt and other matter left in the fibres after the scouring process. The carded wool can then be sent directly to the spinner, and is ideal for woollen yarn.


The spinning stage forms thread by spinning fibres to form yarn. Spinning for the purpose of woollen yarns typically takes place on a mule spinning machine, while worsted yarns can be spun on any number of spinning machines and placed on drums or cones, ready for weaving.


There are two basic weaves that manufacturers use; plain weaving and twill weaving. Yarns that are made into fabric using a plain weave, create a loose weave (due to napping which often conceals construction flaws). Worsted yarns create finer fabrics with a tightly woven smoother fabric which is more durable but a much more costly process.


After the weaving, the fabrics are finished via fulling, crabbing, decating and in some cases, dyeing. Most wool is used to create garments, including sweaters, dresses, coats, suits and sportswear and coarser wool is used to manufacture blankets, upholstery, rugs and carpet. Its properties also make it ideal for a range of industrial applications such as thermal and acoustic insulation. The video shows the Klippan manufacturing factory in Riga—watch it in action.

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